From off-peak charging to the potential of vehicle-to-grid (V2G), the latest Enedis report examines the issues related to the management of electric car charging. A virtuous solution source of savings for the user and flexibility for the electrical networks.
A historical player in electromobility, Enedis is continuing its exploratory work. After presenting at the end of 2019 a first study dedicated to the integration of electric vehicles into the networks and published in the middle of the year a survey dedicated to users, the operator of the public electricity network is interested in a new report on the question of recharging management.
“ We have been working in depth on all subjects surrounding electric mobility for two years. For Enedis, it was important to continue to explain to stakeholders the issues related to the management of recharging but also to quantify the savings that this could bring and to detail the methods of implementation. », Summarizes Régis Le Drezen, Head of the Studies and Development Department of the Enedis electric mobility program.
Consum’actors to raise awareness
While less than 40% of electric car owners today use charging management, the Enedis report intends to educate users and identifies three levers that are particularly easy to implement.
The first concerns what the network manager calls the temporal control of recharging. ” Today, it is the most used mode. It represents 50% of the gains that an electric car user can achieve », Figures the representative of Enedis. For the user, the principle is simple and consists of favoring off-peak charging. Via the on-board computer or a dedicated application, most electric cars already integrate this planning system. The implementation is simple and the gains are interesting: on average 4.5 cents per kWh, a difference of nearly 25% compared to the full hour rate.
The second concerns the control of the power of the load. Several solutions are identified. On the one hand, there are the supervision tools that a community or a company can use to manage a network of several dozen or even several hundred charging points. For individuals, this power management will be played out mainly in the upstream phase: that of the sizing of the installation. Deploying a 7 kW charging station at home naturally requires additional installation costs but also an upward revision of the electric subscription. The additional cost is of the order of 30 € / year for an individual and can climb to 120 € / year for a professional according to the Enedis report (value for an increase in his electric subscription of 3 kW).
More confidential, self-consumption is also a source of earnings for drivers who live in a single-family house equipped with solar panels. The idea: to use the electric car as a vector to store excess solar production during the day. A way for the user to avoid the costs associated with night charging. To absorb this solar surplus, however, the car must be charged during the day and in particular between 12 and 2 p.m. when the sunshine is strongest. This is the reason why Enedis estimates the saving at only 30 € / year, taking into account the average presence rate of the vehicle in the household.
” What we want to explain is that this control is virtuous and that it can also be profitable for the user », Summarizes Régis Le Drezen.
While the reality will obviously depend on the use cases, the Enedis teams have established different scenarios to estimate the annual savings that could be achieved. For an individual recharging mainly at night, the savings can reach up to € 90 per year for a city car traveling 12,000 km each year and consuming an average of 16 kWh / 100 km. For a larger vehicle whose average consumption rises to 23 kWh / 100 km, the savings are immediately greater. On a basis of 15,000 km / year, the annual savings would climb to € 318 by combining the time management, the optimization of the electric subscription and by maximizing the individual self-consumption of the solar production of the house
For professionals whose recharging takes place mainly at night, the potential is even greater with savings of € 430 per vehicle per year.
V2G for the next step
The bi-directional load, or vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and the flexibility of the electric vehicle, occupy a good part of the Enedis report which tackles the subject in a much more prospective way.
Provided that it is linked to a large fleet of vehicles – from 500 to 6,500 depending on the local context – the electric vehicle, including V2G, has many advantages for network flexibility. Applied on a local scale and provided that it is correctly controlled, it can help to store excess energy or, on the contrary, come to the aid of the network in the event of an operational incident. It can also make it possible to reduce or postpone certain investment works. A source of value flexibility that Enedis figures from a few dozen to 200 euros per vehicle and per incident.
Whether it is V2H, V2B or V2G … V2x technology however poses as many questions as it offers solutions. ” Is the end user ready or not to provide a service for the electricity grid? If he agrees, he will want to be paid. There are business cases that will have to be defined », Regis Le Drezen warns. Added to this is the question of the impact of this technology on battery life. While a study carried out by the University of Hawaii in 2017 was able to demonstrate that excessive use of V2G could lead to a loss of battery capacity of around 20% after 5 to 6 years of In daily use, a report from the University of Warwick estimates that its lifespan could be extended if the V2G were properly piloted, including by regulating the daily charge / discharge cycles.
To gain height in this new market and measure the impact of technology on the distribution network, Enedis plans to launch in the first half of 2021 a first experiment dedicated to V2G. As part of the aVEnir program, this will be carried out in partnership with Renault and PSA. ” These reinjection tests will be the subject of a new report in a year », Specifies our interlocutor.
Enedis in its role of facilitator
” We are a trusted third party public service with no commercial business. As we are already doing in other areas such as co-ownership, we have an advisory and support role concerning all projects having an impact on the public distribution network ”, recalls Régis Le Drezen.
The operator of the public electricity network has thus devised several architectures to ensure the management of recharging according to different use cases. Via its various functions, the Linky smart meter will also have a role to play in activating control, monitoring consumption in real time or counting the energy consumed separately from that which has been reinjected into the electrical network.
Find out in detail the Enedis report on the management of electric vehicle charging.
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Article produced in partnership with Enedis. Find out more